Quantum superposition. Quantum mechanics

In 2010, Aaron O’Connell placed a small piece of metal in an opaque vacuum chamber that he cooled to nearly absolute zero. He then sent a pulse of energy to the metal so that it would vibrate. However, the position sensor indicated that the metal was both vibrating a little and still at the same time. This was the first time superposition had been observed in a macroscopic object.

Quantum superposition. Quantum mechanicsIn isolation, when there is no interaction among quantum systems, an object can simultaneously be in an unlimited number of possible positions, as if it were no longer material.

The 10 weirdest quantum physics facts

1. Wave function collapse
2. Heisenberg uncertainty principle
3. Meissner effect
4. Superfluidity
5. Quantum tunneling
6. Quantum entanglement
7. Quantum Zeno effect
8. Delayed choice quantum eraser
9. Quantum superposition
10. Quantum Cheshire Cat

From
The Phase. Shattering the Illusion of Reality
by Michael Raduga

The Phase. Shattering the Illusion of Reality

(Download free old version (2011) OR buy the newest one (2015) on Amazon)

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Delayed choice quantum eraser. Quantum mechanics

In 1999, a group of scientists led by Marlan Scully sent photons through two slits, behind which there was a prism that converted each outgoing photon into a pair of quantum-entangled photons and split them into two paths. The first path sent photons to the main detector. The second path sent photons to a complicated system of reflectors and detectors.

Delayed choice quantum eraser. Quantum mechanicsIt turned out that if a photon from the second path reached detectors determining which slit it had flown through, then the primary detector would register its paired photon as a particle. But if the photon from the second path reached detectors that didn’t determine which slit it had flown out of, then the main detector would register its paired photon as a wave. Measuring one photon affect its twin, regardless of distance and time, as the secondary system of detectors registered photons after the main one had. It’s as if the future determined the past.

The 10 weirdest quantum physics facts

1. Wave function collapse
2. Heisenberg uncertainty principle
3. Meissner effect
4. Superfluidity
5. Quantum tunneling
6. Quantum entanglement
7. Quantum Zeno effect
8. Delayed choice quantum eraser
9. Quantum superposition
10. Quantum Cheshire Cat

From
The Phase. Shattering the Illusion of Reality
by Michael Raduga

The Phase. Shattering the Illusion of Reality

(Download free old version (2011) OR buy the newest one (2015) on Amazon)

_______________________

Quantum Zeno effect. Quantum mechanics

In 1989, a group of scientists led by David Wineland observed the speed at which beryllium ions transitioned between atomic levels. It turned out that the very act of measuring the state of the ions slowed their transition between states. At the beginning of the 21st century, a 30x slowdown was achieved in a similar experiment with rubidium atoms.

Quantum Zeno effect. Quantum mechanicsThis all confirms the Quantum Zeno effect, which states that the mere act of measuring the state of an unstable particle slows its rate of decay, and could theoretically halt it.

The 10 weirdest quantum physics facts

1. Wave function collapse
2. Heisenberg uncertainty principle
3. Meissner effect
4. Superfluidity
5. Quantum tunneling
6. Quantum entanglement
7. Quantum Zeno effect
8. Delayed choice quantum eraser
9. Quantum superposition
10. Quantum Cheshire Cat

From
The Phase. Shattering the Illusion of Reality
by Michael Raduga

The Phase. Shattering the Illusion of Reality

(Download free old version (2011) OR buy the newest one (2015) on Amazon)

_______________________

Quantum entanglement. Quantum mechanics

In 1982, Alain Aspect sent two simultaneously created photons to opposite-direction spin (polarization) detectors. It turned out that measuring the spin of one photon instantly affects that of the other photon, which will be the opposite. This proved the possibility of the quantum entanglement of elementary particles and quantum teleportation. In 2008, scientists were able to measure the state of quantum-entangled photons at a distance of about 90 miles, and interaction between them was still instantaneous, as if they were at the same place or there was no distance.

The 10 weirdest quantum physics facts

1. Wave function collapse
2. Heisenberg uncertainty principle
3. Meissner effect
4. Superfluidity
5. Quantum tunneling
6. Quantum entanglement
7. Quantum Zeno effect
8. Delayed choice quantum eraser
9. Quantum superposition
10. Quantum Cheshire Cat

From
The Phase. Shattering the Illusion of Reality
by Michael Raduga

The Phase. Shattering the Illusion of Reality

(Download free old version (2011) OR buy the newest one (2015) on Amazon)

Quantum entanglement. Quantum mechanics

It is believed that if such quantum-entangled photons appear at opposite ends of the Universe, then interaction between them will still be instantaneous, even though it would take tens of billions of years to cover that distance at the speed of light.

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Quantum tunneling. Quantum mechanics

In 1960, Ivar Giaever conducted experiments on superconductors separated by microscopic film made of aluminum oxide, which does not conduct electricity. It turned out that a portion of the electrons still passed through the insulation. This confirmed the theorized possibility of a quantum tunneling effect.

Quantum tunneling. Quantum mechanics

This applies not only to electricity, but also to all elementary particles: according to quantum physics, they are waves. They can go through a barrier if the width of that barrier is less than the particles’ wavelength. The narrower the barrier, the more often particles can go through it.

The 10 weirdest quantum physics facts

1. Wave function collapse
2. Heisenberg uncertainty principle
3. Meissner effect
4. Superfluidity
5. Quantum tunneling
6. Quantum entanglement
7. Quantum Zeno effect
8. Delayed choice quantum eraser
9. Quantum superposition
10. Quantum Cheshire Cat

From
The Phase. Shattering the Illusion of Reality
by Michael Raduga

The Phase. Shattering the Illusion of Reality

(Download free old version (2011) OR buy the newest one (2015) on Amazon)

_______________________

Superfluidity. Quantum mechanics

In 1938, Pyotr Kapitsa cooled liquid helium to a near-zero temperature and discovered that the substance had lost its viscosity. The phenomenon was dubbed “superfluidity.” If you pour liquid helium into a glass, it will still creep up along the sides and drip out of it.

Superfluidity. Quantum mechanicsIn fact, as long as the helium is sufficiently cold, there are no limits to it creeping up and dripping out, regardless of the shape and size of the glass. At the close of the 20th century and beginning of the 21st, superfluidity was also discovered in hydrogen and various gases.

The 10 weirdest quantum physics facts

1. Wave function collapse
2. Heisenberg uncertainty principle
3. Meissner effect
4. Superfluidity
5. Quantum tunneling
6. Quantum entanglement
7. Quantum Zeno effect
8. Delayed choice quantum eraser
9. Quantum superposition
10. Quantum Cheshire Cat

From
The Phase. Shattering the Illusion of Reality
by Michael Raduga

The Phase. Shattering the Illusion of Reality

(Download free old version (2011) OR buy the newest one (2015) on Amazon)

_______________________

Meissner effect. Quantum mechanics

In 1933, Walther Meissner discovered that in a superconductor that has been cooled down as much as possible, the magnetic field will be expelled. This phenomenon has been dubbed the Meissner effect.

Meissner effect. Quantum mechanicsIf a regular magnet is placed on aluminum (or any other superconductor) that is then cooled using liquid nitrogen, the magnet will levitate and hang in the air, as it will “see” its own magnetic field of the same polarity expelled from the cooled aluminum, and the same sides of magnets repel each other.

The 10 weirdest quantum physics facts

1. Wave function collapse
2. Heisenberg uncertainty principle
3. Meissner effect
4. Superfluidity
5. Quantum tunneling
6. Quantum entanglement
7. Quantum Zeno effect
8. Delayed choice quantum eraser
9. Quantum superposition
10. Quantum Cheshire Cat

From
The Phase. Shattering the Illusion of Reality
by Michael Raduga

The Phase. Shattering the Illusion of Reality

(Download free old version (2011) OR buy the newest one (2015) on Amazon)

_______________________

Heisenberg uncertainty principle. Quantum mechanics

Thanks to a 1927 discovery, thousands of scientists and students have repeated one and the same simple experiment by shining a laser through a hole that gradually becomes smaller. Logically, the visible laser point on the projection screen shrinks as the hole contracts. But when the hole becomes narrow enough, the laser point suddenly widens and expands across the screen until the hole closes.

Heisenberg uncertainty principle. Quantum mechanicsThis is the clearest proof of the quintessence of quantum physics – the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, which states: The more precisely we define one of a pair of properties in a quantum system, the more uncertain the other property becomes. In this case, the more precisely we define the position of the laser photons by making the hole smaller, the more uncertain their momentum becomes.

The 10 weirdest quantum physics facts

1. Wave function collapse
2. Heisenberg uncertainty principle
3. Meissner effect
4. Superfluidity
5. Quantum tunneling
6. Quantum entanglement
7. Quantum Zeno effect
8. Delayed choice quantum eraser
9. Quantum superposition
10. Quantum Cheshire Cat

From
The Phase. Shattering the Illusion of Reality
by Michael Raduga

The Phase. Shattering the Illusion of Reality

(Download free old version (2011) OR buy the newest one (2015) on Amazon)

_______________________